In today’s technology-driven world, there are more options than ever to make a payment, especially for small businesses. For instance, with Square, businesses can allow customers to swipe a card on an iPad or scan their Mobile Wallet on their phone — all for about $50 in equipment!
With these advances, many more people are choosing credit over cash. In fact, there were 33.8 billion credit card payments in the United States worth $3.16 trillion in 2015 — an increase of $6.9 billion since 2012, according to The Federal Reserve Payments Study 2016. On the whole, the study found that credit card payments grew at an annual rate of 8% by number from 2012 to 2015.
However, while credit cards as a whole may be more widely accepted by businesses large and small, not all credit cards are accepted everywhere. Cards like American Express, Discover, and MasterCard may have some limitations.
Why is that, and what can you do as a consumer?
Understanding the credit card networks
There are four major credit card networks within the United States — American Express, Discover, MasterCard, and Visa. Out of the four, Visa is by far the largest, both in the U.S. and globally. Around the world, Visa has 44 million merchant locations (as of Sept. 30, 2016) and 3.1 billion Visa cards issued (as of Dec. 31, 2016), according to their most recent Facts & Figures Report.
In addition to these networks, there are 10 major credit card issuers in the U.S. — American Express, Bank of America, Barclays, Capital One, Citigroup, Discover, JPMorgan, Synchrony, U.S. Bancorp, and Wells Fargo. As of 2014, four of the 10 — Citigroup, JPMorgan, Bank of America, and Capital One — had more than half (57%) of the market share.
Understanding the merchant fees
As we can see above, there are literally billions of credit cards available from all four of the major credit card networks. So, if the top 10 banks control 87.5% of the credit card circulation (as of 2014), why aren’t they accepted everywhere?
The answer: Merchant fees.
What are merchant fees?
Merchant fees is the catch-all term for all of the fees associated with setting up a merchant account so you can accept credit cards, as well as the fees to process those transactions. In general, businesses will face a group of fees to set up and maintain their account as well as pay a fee with each credit card transaction. Some of these costs include a one-time setup fee, monthly account fees, annual account fees, transactional fees, interchange fees, monthly minimum fees, statement fees, network fees, and more.
For most businesses, the setup and maintenance fees are a worthwhile investment — once you create your merchant account, you’re able to accept any form of credit cards. The reason businesses might not accept all credit cards is the transactional fees associated with each card.
How do merchant fees work?
To process a credit card payment, the merchant must pay a fee to three different “middlemen” — the credit card network (Visa, Discover, MasterCard, or American Express), the credit card’s issuing bank (Capital One, JPMorgan, Bank of America, etc.) and the acquiring bank (your banking institution). These fees can range from 1-3%, but for some cards, like American Express, they’re as high as 3.5% per transaction.
As you can see, these fees could start to add up. For instance, let’s say a small business does $100,000 in credit card sales a month:
- If their sales only come from Visa cards that have 1.15% transactional fee, the business will pay $1,150 a month in credit card fees.
- If 50% of their sales come from 1.15% Visa cards and 50% from 3.5% American Express cards, the business will pay $2,325 a month in credit card fees.
That’s a difference of $14,100 a year in credit card fees alone!
Who pays the merchant fees?
Retailers pay all fees associated with setting up their accounts and processing the transactions. However, in 2012, a court settlement made it possible for retailers to pass along transaction fees to consumers in the form of a credit card surcharge. This was repealed and thrown out in 2016, though, putting the fee burden back on the businesses.
Additionally, unlike debit cards, credit cards have no fee caps. As part of the Durbin Amendment included in the 2010 Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, certain debit cards have their interchange fees capped at 21 cents plus 0.05% of the transaction value.
Because no similar sort of legislation exists for credit cards, the card networks and banks can set their own fee rates that retailers have to pay if they want to accept that credit card.
Why do some cards charge higher fees?
It comes down to their business model — do they want to generate most of their income from transactional fees or interest payments? In the case of American Express, their business model is based around generating income from swipe fees, not interest. Many of their most notable cards, such as , charge no interest whatsoever. Because it’s a charge card rather than a credit card, customers must pay their balance off in full each month or face late fees. The card also charges a $550 annual fee.
Alternatives to not-widely-accepted credit cards
Credit cards that aren’t widely accepted, like American Express and Discover, can still be used to make purchases at hundreds of thousands of retailers around the world. However, if you prefer to stick with your Amex or Discover card, you’ll need to have a backup plan in place for when it isn’t accepted.
1. Ask if there’s a spend minimum.
As mentioned above, once a retailer sets up their merchant account, they’re able to accept any of the credit cards. In order to accept a card with high transactional fees, though, they may require you to spend a minimum amount to help offset those costs. If you’d really prefer to use a certain card that isn’t widely accepted, don’t hesitate to ask about the spend minimum first.
2. Carry a backup card, just in case.
Keeping a backup credit card in your wallet is a good idea for those “just in case” moments where your primary card isn’t accepted. For a backup card, it’s a good idea to make it a Visa credit card since they’re accepted at the most locations worldwide.
Additionally, why not make it one of the best rewards credit cards so you can earn points, miles, cash back, and other perks as well? The Chase Sapphire Preferred® Card earns 2x points on travel and restaurants worldwide and 1X points on other purchases. If you want an option without an annual fee, the Chase Freedom® earns 5% cash back on bonus categories (up to $1,500 in combined purchases), and unlimited 1% cash back on other purchases.
3. Keep a debit card handy.
If you’ll recall the Durbin Amendment mentioned above, debit cards have caps on the amount that can be charged on transactional fees. This means that merchants are more likely to accept debit cards over credit cards. As with certain credit cards, though, there may be a spend minimum for debit purchases since there are some small fees.
4. Pay in cold, hard cash.
While we may be using plastic more often, cash is still king when it comes to making payments. If you’d prefer not to carry extra cards, make sure you have cash on hand at all times if your primary credit card is one that isn’t widely accepted.
The bottom line
There’s a lot more that goes into accepting payment for a purchase than just saying “Cash or credit?” Because of varying merchant fees, retailers may choose to accept or not accept certain cards, which means you may not be able to use your preferred method of payment at every business. If your preferred credit card is one that’s not widely accepted, like American Express or Discover, make sure to have a backup plan in place.